Pakistan became a member of the ICC on 28 July, 1953.
Initially, each Full Member had two votes in ICC resolutions, while Associate Members had one each. Founding members (i.e. England and Australia) had veto privileges. Affiliate Members had no voting privileges.
The first two countries to gain Associate Membership were Fiji and the USA, in 1965. In the 1960s and 70s, Associate Membership grew rapidly:
In 1970, the member nations of the renamed International Cricket Conference voted to suspend South Africa from international cricket competition indefinitely, because of its government's discriminatory policy of apartheid. South Africa had played its last Test against Australia on 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 March, 1970, at Port Elizabeth. All ICC member nations were banned from playing against or with South African players.
The suspension resulted in the Test careers of several fine players being cut short, most notably Barry Richards and Graham Pollock. South Africa continued playing domestic cricket within the country, and its players remained strong. In 1974, the South African Cricket Board of Control applied for re-admission to international cricket, and was refused by the ICC.
Starved of top-level competition for its best players, the board began funding so-called rebel tours, offering large sums of money for international players to form teams and tour South Africa. The ICC's response was to blacklist any rebel players who agreed to tour South Africa, banning them from officially sanctioned international cricket. As players were remunerated poorly during the 1970s, several accepted the offer to tour South Africa, particularly players towards the end of their careers, where a blacklisting would have little effect.
The rebel tours were widely condemned by the cricket establishement as offering support and succour to South Africa's apartheid regime, and some members of the press supported this view. Others claimed that the old maxim that "sport and politics do not mix" applied and saw no harm in having a sporting contest with citizens of an oppressive government.
Rebel tours continued into the 1980s, including a high profile English team led by Graham Gooch in 1982, and an team of Australians led by former Test captain Kim Hughes in 1985. Hughes never played officially sanctioned cricket again, but Gooch went on to represent England again after serving a 3-year ban.
This change to the rules allowed a game to be completed within one day. This did not supplant the traditional long format of the game, which continued to be played. Indeed, many cricket fans considered the shorter form of the game to be a corruption of the sport. One-day cricket did however have the advantage of delivering a result to spectators within a single day, thus improving cricket's appeal to younger or busier people.
Since Australia was using 8-ball overs at the time, the match was set for 40 overs per innings. Australia won the toss and captain Bill Lawry sent England in to bat, perhaps figuring that knowing the target and how many overs they had to chase it down would make winning easier. The English players had some experience with one-day cricket, from the county competitions back home, and set about amassing runs at a respectable rate, somewhat faster than a Test match. They were dismissed halfway through the last over, for a total of 190. The scoring rate was 3.6 runs per 6 balls, a figure significantly higher than typical Test scoring rates, but not approaching the rates that would later become typical of one-day cricket. For their part, the Australians had no real experience with such games, and did not adjust their tactics at all, setting typical attacking Test cricket fields that allowed England to score runs more easily than they should have been able.
However, seeing the chase ahead of them, the Australians batted aggressively and well, scoring the required runs in the 35th over at a rate of 4.1 runs per 6 balls, and losing just 5 wickets in the process. The first one-day international, played on the same ground between the same teams as the first Test 94 years earlier, ended with the same team winning.
The cricketing establishment, seeing the huge turnout for the game, decided that more one-day internationals would appear in future scheduling. One-day internationals have since grown to become the most popular form of cricket.
The West Indies beat Australia in a thrilling final that cemented the popularity of the short form of cricket and led to World Cups being held every four years.
England won the toss and put Australia in to bat after a wet morning, hoping to make the most of the moisture in the pitch. The tactic worked, and Australia were dismissed before the end of the day for a paltry 138 runs. Unfortunately for the English, it also worked for the Australians, when a fired up Dennis Lillee took an amazing 6/26, assisted by Max Walker with 4/54, wrapping up the English innings for just 95.
In the second innings, Australia fared much better, building a total of 9/419 declared on the back of wicket-keeper Rod Marsh's 110 and debutant David Hookes' flashing 56 that included 9 fours, five of them off consecutive deliveries by English captain Tony Greig. England's target of 463 to win looked unassailable, but assail it they did. With both openers finally gone at 2/113, Derek Randall and Dennis Amiss added another 166 runs before Amiss was finally bowled by Australian captain Greg Chappell - a part time bowler simply trying himself for some variety. Randall stayed at the crease until the score reached 346 runs, having scored 174 of them. With five wickets down, England needed just over 100 more runs to win. Enter Dennis Lillee again. The tearaway fast bowler ripped throough the English tail, taking a total of 5/139 in the innings and giving him 11 wickets for the match. England were all out for 417, a tantalising 45 runs short of Australia's total.
And by an uncanny coincidence, that was exactly the same result and margin of victory as 100 years earlier.
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